All of the articles below were written by William L "Night Owl" Deyo, Historian Emeritus. Each articles contains genealogical connections to valid tribal connections. These articles may be helpful in your genealogical search. They also provide great insight into the Tribe's lineage and storied history. Select the link below of the article you are interested in and you will be able to jump straight to the full article.
Col. Henry Meese, Merchant, Trader, And Son-In-Law Of The King Of Patawomeck
A large number of the Patawomeck Tribal members descend from Col. Henry Meese and his wife, a daughter of Wahanganoche, King of Patawomeck, whose Christian name is believed to have been “Mary”. This couple had very interesting family ties. Mary’s father was the son of Chief Japasaw and his wife, who was a sister of Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan. Mary’s mother is strongly believed to have been a daughter of Col. Thomas Pettus and his first wife, Ka-Okee, daughter of Pocahontas and her first husband, Kocoum, younger brother of Japasaw. That would help to explain why Col. Thomas Pettus deeded his land that adjoined Chief Wahanganoche to Henry Meese, who would have been the husband of his granddaughter, Mary. Henry Meese was born in 1628 in Oxfordshire, England, to Robert Meese and Mercy Brend, daughter of Nicholas Brend, the first owner of the famous Globe Theatre, built on the land that he leased to William Shakespeare and others. The Brend family descended from English royalty. Henry Meese’s paternal grandparents were John Meese and Margaret Cox, likely a relative of the Cox family of Stafford and Westmoreland Counties in Virginia.
Henry Meese sailed to Maryland from England in the 1650’s, as a young man in his 20’s. Being from a noble family, his name is often styled as “gentleman” in the records. Henry Meese, merchant, was one of the executors of the estate of Basil Little (also a merchant) in 1657/8 and was called a “merchant of London” in partnership with Nathaniel Utie in Maryland in 1658. By the early 1660’s, he was in the area of Stafford County, Virginia, and had become the son-in-law of Wahanganoche, King of Patawomeck. The story was told by some of his descendants that he gave livestock to the Chief for the hand of the Chief’s daughter in marriage. In 1662, Wahanganoche deeded land to Henry Meese. This time frame matches the age range of Henry’s children, as stated in his will of 1681. After the formation of Stafford County from Westmoreland, Meese was its first representative in the House of Burgesses in 1666. He was appointed to the Virginia Council in 1679. He had married his second wife, Anne Pert, per marriage contract in England dated 16 April 1675, returned to England in 1681 and died there in 1682. His will provided for his children born in Virginia, namely Henry, John, Anne, and Frances Meese, all under 21 in 1681. Nothing is known of the son, Henry. It is believed by the compiler that the son, John, first married his cousin, Rebecca Pettus, daughter of Robert Pettus, believed to have been a son of Col. Thomas Pettus and his first wife, Ko-Okee, daughter of Pocahontas and Kocoum. John Meese married secondly to Mary (Grigsby) Newton, daughter of the immigrant, John Grigsby, who traditionally married another daughter of Wahanganoche. The Mees/Mays family of Stafford, descending from Robert Mays (b. 1735) and his wife, Elizabeth Bolling, have long carried a tradition of a descent from Pocahontas, which many believe must be through the Bolling family. However, since that Bolling family is not descended from Robert Bolling who married the granddaughter of Pocahontas and John Rolfe, the compiler believes that the Pocahontas descent is through Robert Mays and that he was a grandson of John Meese and Rebecca Pettus. Henry Meese’s daughter, Anne, married first to a Mr. Redman, by whom she had a son, William, and secondly to Dr. Richard Bryant, her first cousin, son of Keziah Arroyah, another daughter of Wahanganoche. The last named daughter of Henry Meese, Frances, has often been stated to have been the first wife of Rev. John Waugh and mother of his older children, but that is not possible, due to her age. She would have been close to the same age as those children. It is not known who Frances married, but we will hopefully one day determine that information and discover another large group of descendants of Henry Meese. Some of the earlier families who descend from Henry Meese are: Bryant, Redman/Redmond, Jeffries, Elkins, Monteith, Rogers, Owens, Kenney, Newton, Dobson, Bowie, Hudson, Jones, and Bradshaw, but there are countless other families today.
Update On Descendants Of Col. Henry Meese
From time to time new evidence comes to light that helps to more fully explain our history and genealogy. The following information is a good example of this. Some have tried to discredit our history with this new information, but it actually strengthens it.
Col. Henry Meese has long been believed to have first married a daughter of Chief Wahanganoche, who allowed him to live on his land and eventually deeded that land to Henry Meese. Henry Meese, who is known to have been born about 1628 from a deposition and from the English Visitation record of his family, eventually married an English woman, Ann Pert, in 1675, who has been believed to have been his second wife. He left all of his land in Virginia to his four children mentioned in his will, Henry, John, Ann and Frances Meese and stated that they were all under the age of 21. The daughter, Ann, has been believed to have been the same Ann who married Dr. Richard Bryant. It has recently come to the attention of your historian that the children named in Henry Meese's will were all very young infants of his last wife, Ann Pert. It is still strongly believed that Meese had children by his apparent Indian wife, one of whom was Ann, wife of Dr. Richard Bryant. It was a frequent practice in those days to have more than one child by the same name due to the desires of different wives. Ann (Pert) Meese certainly wanted to name a daughter after herself, even though Henry apparently had one by that name already. This is not at all far-fetched, and to give supporting evidence to this, one only has to check out the John Meese who lived in 1689, with his first wife, Rebecca, on the property that once belonged to Chief Wahanganoche. He married, as his second wife, Mary (Grigsby) Newton, whose mother was traditionally a daughter of Chief Wahanganoche and wife of John Grigsby, who lived on adjoining land to the Chief. This John Messe, almost certainly the son of Henry Meese, was NOT the son of Ann (Pert) Meese, mentioned in Henry's will. The John Meese in the will was born in 1681, per his baptismal record, and the John Meese in Virginia was born well before 1668, since he had to be of the age of 21 when he and his first wife leased land in 1689 from William Fitzhugh, the lawyer of Henry Meese's widow, Ann (Pert) Meese. The older John was apparently a child of Henry's union with a daughter of Chief Wahanganoche, as was Ann, the wife of Dr. Richard Bryant. Since Henry's half-Indian children were not mentioned in his will, it was probably due to each of them having reached adulthood, married, and having already been provided for by their father. It was a frequent practice for a father to refrain from naming married daughters in his will or to not mention children for whom he had already provided. This may also account for the adamant claims of descendants of John Ashton and Rev. John Waugh that their ancestors married daughters of Henry Meese named Grace and Frances, respectively. This had previously been discounted because Henry's will did not name a daughter, Grace, and the daughter, Frances, of his will was too young to have been the mother of Rev. John Waugh's children. Also, many Grigsby descendants claim that they descend from two daughters of William Redman, the son of Ann, the later wife of Dr. Richard Bryant, but that could not be the case if Ann was under the age of 21 and unmarried in Henry Meese’s will. Our new information, that Ann was likely a married adult when Henry Meese wrote his will, puts this tradition back on track and supports the Grigsby tradition.
A number of people are often trying to discredit our history. A good example is the recent charge that Henry Meese was not even in the area before Wahanganoche’s death and never even met him. Although there are very few existing official records of that period that involve our Tribe, that is one that does exist and defeats that recent charge. In Hening’s Statutes at Large we find the following: “Laws of Virginia, March 1661-2: WHEREAS Wahanganoche king of the Potowmeck Indians acknowledged before the committee appointed for the Indian busines, the sale of that whole tract of land possest by Mr. Henry Mees in Potowmeck according to the bounds and marked trees which he confest were marked in his presence and with his consent, it is ordered by the assembly that the said Mees enjoy the said land to him and his heires for ever. Sale of land by Wahanganoche king of Potomack, to H. Mees confirmed.” This shows that, not only did Wahanganoche deed land to Henry Meese, but that Henry Meese was already allowed to reside on the land previous to the deed. The only logical reason for the Chief to allow Meese to reside on his land was that Meese was married to the Chief’s daughter.
It is very important to realize that our Indian ancestors did not keep written records. They relied solely on their sacred oral history. Everything that was important, including the genealogies, was passed down verbally and was held by the Tribe to be just as valid as a written court record of the English. Our Indian ancestors had ways of remembering their history that were passed down through the generations. When we speak of a traditional account of history or a genealogy that has been passed down by our Indian ancestors, it is not to be taken lightly. Even though we did not have an organized tribe for many generations, the traditions that were passed down are more likely to have had a higher percentage of validity than those passed down by the English who relied on written records.
We only seek the truth. Hopefully, more truths will be uncovered as time goes on.
The current Patawomeck Tribe contains many members who are descended from the Jett family of Stafford County, including the compiler of this article, your Tribal Historian, William “Bill” Deyo. The Jetts intermarried with a number of families of Patawomeck descent, such as the families of Curtis, Roberson, Sullivan, Newton, Monteith, etc. The earliest connection with the Tribe may have been through the marriage of Francis Jett (b. abt. 1735, d. 1791) with Barsheba Porch, which I will discuss shortly. I interviewed the long-time Commissioner of Revenue for Stafford County, George Gordon, before his death, along with an honorary member of the Tribe, Gloria Sharp. Gloria is definitely a Patawomeck descendant, as well, through the Owens family but just needs to piece together some of the elusive early records in her line. When asked which families of Stafford were of Indian descent, Mr. Gordon named without hesitation, the Newtons, the Monteiths, and the Jetts.
The apparent ancestor of all of the Jetts in Virginia was the immigrant, Peter Jett, who sailed from England to Virginia by about 1663. Peter brought with him, his wife, Mary, and his children, William, Peter, Mary, and Martha. His son, John Jett, was born after they had settled in Virginia. The Jetts settled on Peppenocks Creek, near Leedstown. It has long been stated that Peter Jett’s wife, Mary, was the sister of Francis Triplett, his friend from England. Circumstantial evidence seems to support this, as both Peter Jett and Francis Triplett received patents for land dated on the same day of 23 January 1666. Peter Jett received 600 acres for transporting 11 people, including his family and Francis Triplett and his wife. Francis Triplett received over 1,000 acres of land in which his application included Peter Jett and his family! No one in the Patent Office ever appears to have noticed that they claimed each other. In January 1676, there was an Indian raid on the area where Peter Jett and his family had settled. Over 30 people were killed and many homes within a 20 mile area were destroyed by fire. We only know that Peter Jett and his sons, William and John, survived. It is possible that his wife, his son, Peter, and his two daughters were all killed during that raid.
My whole life, I have wondered about the parentage of my ancestor, Peter Jett. Many have speculated about it but nothing was known about it until one of our own Tribal members, Price Jett, Jr., known as “Billy”, made a trip to England during the past decade and discovered the truth. Billy Jett found the baptismal record of our Peter Jett at the Parish of Iffley in Oxfordshire, England. He was baptized in Iffley Church in 1626, where the baptismal font still exists. His parents were William Jett, of Hockemoore Street, who died in 1632 and was buried in Iffley Parish, and Ellen Ewen of Littlemore, who were married in Iffley on 25 June 1604. Peter was their last child. He had older siblings named John, Katherine, Ann, William, Alice, and Ellen. The baptism of Peter’s son, William, from whom many of the Patawomeck Tribe descend, is even recorded at Oxford All Saints in 1653. This William Jett married Elizabeth Hoskins, widow of Cornelius Wood, and daughter of Anthony Hoskins, Gentleman, and his wife, Joyce, daughter of Capt. William Jones. William and Elizabeth were the parents of Francis Jett, whose wife was said to have been Sarah Claxton or Saxton (but whom the compiler believes was the daughter of Henry Axton). This Francis Jett married secondly, Elizabeth (Underwood) Thatcher, and died in 1723. Francis’ son, Peter Jett, by his first wife, Sarah, married Rebecca Bowen, daughter of Stephen Bowen and his wife (first name unknown), who was the daughter of Thomas Richardson and Mary (Thatcher) Clapham. Peter came to know his wife through his stepmother, Elizabeth, as her first husband was the brother of Rebecca Bowen’s grandmother, Mary Thatcher. Peter Jett left the Leedstown area and moved to the area of Stafford County. His son, Francis Jett (b. abt. 1735) married Barsheba Porch, daughter of Richard Porch, who left a will in the King George County in 1750, the section that later became the White Oak area of Stafford County. Richard Porch appears to have had a sister, Christian Porch, who became the wife of William Payne, a witness to the will of Richard Porch. The Porch family had a very close association with the Threlkeld family, who also carried that given name of Christian. That is a very important clue to their probable descent from the matriarch of the Martin family, Christian (Pettus) Martin. Your historian believes that Richard Porch’s mother (given name unknown), who married Thomas Porch, and Mary, the wife of Christopher Threlkeld, were sisters and daughters of Christian (Pettus) Martin Waddington, either by her first husband, John Martin, or her second husband, Francis Waddington, ancestor of Maj. William Newton’s wife, Elizabeth Kenyon. Christian Pettus was traditionally the daughter of the Patawomeck Indian, Ka-Okee, by her apparent husband, Col. Thomas Pettus, who also had a sister, Christian Pettus, and a grandmother by that name. Ka-Okee was the daughter of Pocahontas by her first husband, the Patawomeck warrior, Kocoum, younger brother of Chief Japasaw/I-Opassus. According to oral histories of the Patawomeck Tribe and Mattaponi Tribe, Pocahontas’ child by Kocoum was raised by the Patawomeck Tribe after her abduction by the English in 1613. This important ancestral connection has been passed down among many of the Pataomeck descendants, including some of the present-day Pettus family. Francis and Barsheba Jett had a large family from whom most of the Jetts of the White Oak area descend. Their daughters intermarried with other well-known families of White Oak, including the families of Cox, Roberson, Burton, Sullivan, and Rollow. Barsheba (Porch) Jett also had a number of sisters who intermarried with other White Oak families to continue this important ancestral connection, including Curtis, Limerick/Limbrick, Kitchen, Berry, and Burton.
Our Patawomeck Ancestors
Your Tribal Historian, William L. “Bill” Deyo, became interested in his family roots at a very early age. Stories about the ancestors told by his grandaunt, Anne (Roberson) Hudson, and his grandfather, Leonard Madison Hudson, made him anxious to learn more about these people of the past who were his forebears. The most intriguing stories were about the ancestors of Indian blood, Chief Pasapatanzy, the Indian girl, Ka-Okee, and even Indian Princess Pocahontas, herself. As a child, every Christmas he would put on his Christmas list to receive his family tree, but it never became a reality. As a teenager, he started compiling his own ancestor charts of the names given to him by his elders. During his first week in college at the University of Richmond, he became familiar with the large genealogical collection at the Boatwright Library and was taught by the Reference Librarian, Miss Francis, how to use the various genealogical reference books to trace his ancestry. The most wonderful discovery was a book about the descendants of Pocahontas and John Rolfe by their descendant, Wyndham Robertson, a former Governor of Virginia. Since so many of Bill’s relatives had told him that he was a direct descendant of Pocahontas, he was determined to find out how that came about. He studied the various descents from Pocahontas and John Rolfe for many months without finding any possible lineage to his family. Over the years that followed, he found many other clues that Pocahontas was an ancestor, but could not find any ancestors who connected with the genealogy of the descendants of Pocahontas and John Rolfe. He eventually decided that, if Pocahontas really was an ancestor, her connection to his family was simply an unsolved mystery. Apparently, the time was just not right for the line of descent from Pocahontas to be known, as will be shown.
Not being able to solve the lineage back to Pocahontas, Bill began to concentrate on the other ancestral lines. When he was home from college, he would go with his grandmother and grandaunt to visit many of the older relatives in Stafford County in hopes of learning more about distant ancestors. Those visits were vital in tracing the various lines of Indian ancestry. Many relatives knew stories that had been passed down since the 1600s and had Family Bibles, old letters, and even manuscripts written many years ago about our families. Bill learned that he had descents from Chief Wahanganoche, alias Whipsewasson, son of Japasaw (Chief Passapatanzy); from the Indian girl, Ontonah, through the Curtis family; and from the Indian girl, Ka-Okee, through the Roberson and other families. He learned about various other lines of Indian blood in which the name of the Indian ancestor had been forgotten. There was enough information about Ontonah to figure out where she fit in on the family tree, but the Indian girl, Ka-Okee, remained a mystery.
About three years ago, Bill was determined to figure out exactly where Ka-Okee fit in our genealogy. He knew that she was claimed by the Roberson and Peyton families. When tracing back the ancestry of those two families, there only seemed to be one place where Ka-Okee would fit, as the mother of the ancestor, Christian (Pettus) Martin, who was known to have had much Indian blood. Then, everything else fell into place and fit like a glove. The Sullivan family, known to have had much Indian blood but who did not know the name of their Indian ancestor, also descended in several ways from Christian Martin. Ka-Okee was the name of the previously unknown Indian ancestor of the Sullivan’s! The later Newton family knew that they had the Indian blood through the marriage into the Monteith family, but there was Indian blood in the early Newton family which was unaccounted for. That mystery was now solved, as the early Newtons also descended from Christian Martin and her mother, Ka-Okee. The Jett family always claimed Indian blood, which was attested to by the late George Gordon, Commissioner of Revenue of Stafford, but from where did that come? It was also through their descent from Christian Martin and Ka-Okee! After putting together a multitude of descendants of Ka-Okee through her daughter, Christian Martin, an amazing thing happened. A book was published by Dr. Linwood Custalow and Angela Daniel about the true story of Pocahontas. The information was obtained from the sacred oral history of the Mattaponi Tribe. The Mattaponi Tribe has a special interest in Pocahontas, as many of them descend from the sister of Pocahontas, Matachanna, who went to England with Pocahontas and took care of Thomas Rolfe, the son of Pocahontas and John Rolfe. The book revealed that Pocahontas first married the Indian, Kocoum, the younger brother of Chief Japasaw, and had a child by him. William Strachey, Secretary of Virginia Colony, wrote that Pocahontas had first married the Indian, Kocoum, in 1610, but did not mention that she had a child by him, a fact that was probably kept secret by the Patawomecks for the safety of the child. The book by Custalow and Daniel calls the child “Little Kocoum,” but the time line near the end of the book states that they really do not know anything about the child from the sacred Mattaponi history, only that Pocahontas had a child by Kocoum and that the child was raised by the Patawomeck Tribe. The book states that the Newton family of Stafford County descends from the child of Pocahontas and Kocoum! Can you imagine the joy of the compiler to learn this after over 40 years of research? It was no wonder that he could not find a descent from Pocahontas and John Rolfe for his family. The descent was not from John Rolfe at all but was through Pocahontas’ first husband, Kocoum! The reason that the Mattaponi Tribe knew that the Newtons and other Stafford families descended from Pocahontas and Kocoum was due to the research of the late Mattaponi Chief, O. T. Custalow, who married Elizabeth Newton of Stafford. Chief Custalow researched the ancestry of his wife, Elizabeth Newton, long before the compiler was born and was able to talk to the elders at that time who knew how they descended from Pocahontas. Years later, when the compiler began his research, the elders at that time knew that Pocahontas was their ancestor but did not know how.
After finding out about the descent from Pocahontas and Kocoum, the task began to figure out the exact lineage. This was not difficult because every family line which carried the knowledge of a descent from Pocahontas went back to the Martin family and the Indian girl, Ka-Okee. Since we know from a deposition that Ka-Okee’s daughter, Christian, was born about 1636 or 1637, it was not hard to figure out that Ka-Okee, herself, was the daughter of Pocahontas! That explained the fondness of the name of “Rebecca” by the descendants of the Martin family, as that was the Christian name of Pocahontas. The Peyton/Payton family claimed that their Indian ancestor was a daughter of Powhatan and even named a child as late as the 1800s as “Rebecca Martin” Peyton. She was obviously named after a child of John and Christian Martin. Bill, the compiler, believes that Rebecca was the oldest child of John and Christian Martin and was the first wife of Rev. John Waugh. Rev. Waugh’s descendants by his first wife carry the strong tradition of Indian blood. As was often done in the old days, Rev. Waugh later married another daughter of John and Christian Martin, namely their daughter, Christian, who had first been married to Evan Williams and was the ancestor by Williams of some of the families of Elkins, Grigsby, Redman, and Peyton. Rev. Waugh did not have any children by his last wife, Christian. Ka-Okee is believed to have married a member of the Pettis/Pettus family. The name of her daughter, Christian, was a favorite ancestral name of that family going back to their ancestor in England, Christan (Dethick) Pettus, and the descendants of Christian Martin continued to carry on that given name for many generations. Ka-Okee’s husband was likely a brother of Col. Thomas Pettus, who had a sister named “Christian” and owned land that adjoined that of Chief Wahanganoche which was the later home of Ka-Okee’s daughter, Christian. Col. Thomas Pettus did have a brother, Theodore, who came to Virginia in 1623 and was still in Virginia near the end of 1626, when he made a testimony in court. It is important to note that the famous Matoaka portrait of Pocahontas was found in England in a Pettus home! Col. Thomas Pettus’ uncle, William Pettus, married Elizabeth Rolfe, the daughter of John Rolfe’s own granduncle, Henry Rolfe! The compiler did not realize that such close connections between the Rolfe and Pettus families existed in England until he was compiling this article. John Rolfe took Pocahontas to his family estate in England when they visited there in 1616. She no doubt met the Pettus family and may have asked that if any of them went to Virginia to please check on her daughter, Ka-Okee. One evidently did check on her and married her. Since we do not have definite knowledge of the name of Mr. Pettis/Pettus, who married Ka-Okee, he could even have been been a son of William Pettus and Elizabeth Rolfe who were married in 1594. Col. Thomas Pettus brought his nephew, Thomas, son of his brother, William, to Virginia. Is it any wonder that Thomas Pettus’ grandson, Josias Fugate, married his own cousin, Mary Martin, a granddaughter of John Martin and Chistian Pettus and became the ancestor of the Sullivan family of Stafford? Christian Pettus, daughter of Ka-Okee, had a sister who married a Mr. Goldsby and is believed to have had a brother, Robert Pettis, who lived in the same area and had a daughter named Rebecca. Rebecca, daughter of Robert Pettis, was named in the will of Thomas Maddison as his godchild. Thomas Maddison is said to have been the son of Isaac Maddison, who lived for a while at the Patawomeck Village. Rebecca Pettis may have been the same Rebecca who was the first wife of John Meese, her cousin of Indian blood, and would explain why the later Mees/Mays family of Stafford County claimed a descent from Pocahontas. Ka-Okee may have had many other children who were the ancestors of Stafford families. The compiler believes that Chief Wahanganoche, himself, married a daughter of his relative, Ka-Okee, as will be explained. Many of our tribal members may not know their distant ancestry and would not be aware of their own descents from Pocahontas. It would probably help to mention here that some of the families who carry the traditional descent from Pocahontas and Kocoum are: Martin, Threlkeld, Porch, Sullivan, Fugate, Roberson, Curtis, Limbrick, Newton, Green, Butler, Courtney, Humphries, Brown, Jett, Peyton/Payton, Chilton, Burton, Hudson, Jones, Cox, Grigsby, Bates, Berry, Kitchen, Fines, Chinn, McGuire, Payne, Rollow, and many others.
To explain why the compiler believes that Chief Wahanganoche married a daughter of his cousin, Ka-Okee, is a very important story that forms the very basis of our Patawomeck Tribe and its strong connection to the Pamunkey Indians. We need to go back to the family of Chief Powhatan, the supreme ruler of the Powhatan Federation. He was called Chief Powhatan because that was the name of the Federation. His real name was Wahunsunacock. We have a similar situation with out ancestor, Chief Japasaw, who was called Chief Passapatanzy because that was where he lived. The Great King of Patawomeck was often mentioned in the records as the brother of Japasaw, the Lesser Chief, but his actual name has never been determined. We could just similarly call him Chief Patawomeck or King Patawomeck. For years there has been controversy about the identity of Chief Powhatan’s father. Some of the early records state that he was the son of Nemattanon, alias Don Luis de Velasco, who was taken by the Spanish when he was young and returned many years later. I even stated this in some of my published books, but I now believe that he was not Powhatan’s father. The ages do not match well enough for him to have been a father of Powhatan, since Nemattanon was born about 1543, and Powhatan was born about 1545. Since Nemattanon held the same position as Powhatan, he could only have been the younger brother of Powhatan’s mother, through whom the “royal” bloodline flowed. Since the early Powhatans had a tradition of calling a maternal uncle as “father”, that would explain the confusion. This practice of kinship designation is explained in the dissertation of Dr. J. Frederick Fausz of William & Mary College in 1977. The Powhatans had a matrilineal society, in which the ruling bloodline always flowed through the women. Captain John Smith explained this as: “His [Powhatan’s] kingdome desendeth not to his sonnes nor children: but first to his brethren, whereof he hath 3 namely Opitchapan, Opechancanough, and Catataugh; and after their decease to his sisters. First to the eldest sister, then to the rest: and after them to the heires male and female of the eldest sister; but never to the heires of the males.”
Even though this was the rule, there was a way of getting around it for the children of a male ruler to inherit the leadership of the Federation. Chief Richardson made the statement in Pocahontas Revealed that Chief Powhatan’s daughter, Pocahontas, was being groomed to become a future ruler. Your compiler, at first, thought that Pocahontas could never have become a future ruler because she was the daughter of a male ruler whose children could not inherit the rule. Then, he started to examine the circumstances and realized that Chief Richardson was right! Pocahontas certainly was being groomed for leadership, but why would that be if she could never inherit that position? Then came the light! A child of any male ruler could indeed inherit the rule, if, and only if, their mother was of the royal bloodline! All of the male rulers knew this and appeared to have made it a common practice to marry their relatives who were in line to inherit the rule through their royal bloodline. That explained why Opechancanough married his own niece, Powhatan’s daughter, Cleopatra, sister of Pocahontas, because she too was of the royal bloodline. The head of the Federation was allowed to have as many wives as he wished, whereas the other chief of the tribes under his rule were only allowed to have a maximum of two wives. It was the common practice of the head of the Federation to take a wife and then send her away after she had given birth to her first child. The head of the Federation had one child by each wife and the wife was then free to go on with her life and marry someone else. The one exception to this practice was the “favorite” wife. There was at least one favorite wife who lived with the head of the Federation and bore him many children. She was his favorite because she was of the royal bloodline and the only way through which he could have children to inherit his rule. He would, therefore, have as many children by her as he could to create his legacy. Who, then, was the mother of Pocahontas and Cleopatra? It was the favorite wife of Chief Powhatan, Winganuske. She was known to have been his favorite wife and the mother of his then favorite daughter (Cleopatra), after Pocahontas had left his home to be married. We know the names of many of Powhatan’s wives and children by the testimony of Machumps, the brother of Winganuske. Winganuske had the royal bloodline through her mother, the eldest of the two sisters of Chief Powhatan.
Now, we come to the connection to our Patawomeck Tribe. Our tribe was one of the subjects of Powhatan, as he stated in his own words, and a part of the Powhatan Federation. We also know this from the testimony of Henry Spelman, who lived for a number of years with Chief Japasaw. Because the Patawomeck Tribe was a part of the Federation, its rulers were appointed by the head of the Federation. Both the Great King Patawomeck and his brother, Japasaw, the Lesser King/Chief, were appointed to their positions by Chief Powhatan. In 1622, the Great King of Patawomeck was visited by Capt. John Smith. He told Capt. Smith that Opitchipam [next brother of the late Chief Powhatan, who died in 1618] was his brother. It was at this time that he also refused the gift of beads from Opechancanough, the next brother of Opitchipam that were given to him to kill Capt. Rawleigh Croshaw and caused the break from the Powhatan Federation. This has long been a point of confusion for many including myself. The Great King of Patawomeck has often been stated, at this time, to have been Japasaw, not his older brother. This was not the case, however. The last apparent record of Japasaw was in 1619/1620, when he made a trip to Jamestown, as a representative of his brother, the Great King Patawomeck. As will be explained later, Japasaw may have died by the early spring of 1622, and it was the Great King Patawomeck, the older brother, who was still alive in the fall of 1622 and talked to Capt. John Smith. Your compiler was very glad that our wise Lesser Chief, Gary Cooke, pointed out in a recent Tribal Council meeting that Capt. Smith never talked to Japasaw, only his brother. Japasaw never became the Great King of Patawomeck. He appears to have been the Lesser Chief or King until his death. The sacred oral history of the Mattaponi, some of which has recently been published by Dr. Linwood Custalow and Angela Daniel, states that Japasaw was a very close friend of Chief Powhatan, but was not his brother. Therefore, if Japasaw was not the brother of Opitchipam and Powhatan, how could his own brother, the Great King of Patawomeck, have been their brother, per his own statement? He was not their brother by blood but was their brother by marriage to their eldest sister! He was the father of Powhatan’s favorite wife, Winganuske.
When the Patawomecks broke away from the Powhatan Federation in 1622 and allied with the English, they no longer were subject to having their rulers appointed. They held to the system of the matrilineal society and used it internally in their own tribe, just as they had done long before they became a part of the Powhatan Federation and were allied with the Piscataway Tribe. As their bloodlines were then very much a part of the Powhatans, they continued that royal female bloodline. We know from the writings of Henry Spelman that Japasaw had two wives. One was named Paupauwiske, who had a baby son when Spelman was living with them. We do not know the name of the other wife, but we do know something of her identity. When Pocahontas was living with the Patawomecks at the time that she was captured by the English in 1613, Capt. Ralph Hamor wrote about her capture. In his narrative, he mentioned that Japasaw had been given a copper kettle and other items by Capt. Argall for delivering Pocahontas to them. Hamor made the statement about Japasaw “that doubtlesse he would have betrayed his owne father for them…” That tells us that Powhatan was not Japasaw’s own father. However, Hamor then states that “his [Japasaw’s] father had then eight of our English men, many swords, peeces, and other tooles, which he had at severall times by treacherous murdering of our men, taken from them…” The man who had eight of the Englishmen was none other than Chief Powhatan. That was the main reason for capturing Pocahontas, to use her as a bribe to get the eight Englishmen back safely from Powhatan. If Powhatan was not “Japasaw’s own father” by Hamor’s own words, then why did Hamor then call Powhatan the father of Japasaw? It was because Powhatan was Japasaw’s father-in-law by having married one of his daughters, a sister of Pocahontas. By marrying one of Winganuske’s daughters, Japasaw was seeing to it that one of his own children might have a chance of becoming the ruler of the Federation. His son by a daughter of Powhatan did indeed become the Great King of Patawomeck after the Patawomeck Tribe had broken away from the Federation. The only way that could have happened was for Wahanganoche’s mother to have been of the royal bloodline. It was possible for the son of a Lesser Chief to take over his father’s position, even without being of the royal bloodline, but to become the supreme chief, a son of a male ruler must have had the royal bloodline through his mother. This close connection of Japasaw and Pocahontas, along with the fact that Pocahontas married Japasaw’s younger brother, Kocoum, was the reason that Pocahontas was living with the Patawomecks at the time of her capture. Japasaw was the granduncle and the double brother-in-law of Pocahontas. The fact that the Indians married their nieces in order to give their children a chance to rule may seem like incest to us now, but it was perfectly acceptable to them. Many of the great civilizations of the world carried on the same practice. It was even acceptable for a man to marry his half-sister, as long as she did not have the same mother. This was a practice of the great civilization of Egypt, as well as the Hawaiians. I must mention here that our Biblical ancestor, Abraham, even married his own half-sister, Sarah!
As mentioned above, the compiler believes that the Lesser King of Patawomeck, Japasaw, died in or by the early spring of 1622. When Pocahontas and John Rolfe visited England in 1616, Pocahontas took a number of her relatives and friends with her. The records of the Virginia Company reveal that two of these Indians were daughters of “no lesse than petie kinges.” Their names were Mary and Elizabeth. In 1621, the Virginia Company sent them to the Somers Islands [Bermuda]. One died during the voyage, but the other, thought to have been the one named “Elizabeth,” was married there in the early spring of 1622 to a well-to-do Englishman at the home of Governor Nathaniel Butler, the ancestral uncle of many of the Butlers of Stafford County. Governor Butler encouraged the Indian maiden to write a letter to her brother in Virginia, who, by her father’s late death, had succeeded to his command. If her father was a Lesser King/Chief, and she was a relative of Pocahontas, who had close ties of kinship to the Patawomeck Tribe, it is very likely that he was Japasaw, Lesser King/Chief of the Patawomecks. Her brother would have been none other than our ancestor, Wahanganoche, who would have succeeded his father as Lesser Chief. As the Great King of Patawomeck was still alive, Wahanganoche would not have inherited that position until after his death, which likely occurred on 22 May 1623 at the famous Poison Plot, in which Dr. John Pott prepared a poison punch that killed over 200 Indians at Patawomeck, including many chiefs. Wahanganoche is believed to have also been the young King of Patawomeck when Father Andrew White visited in March of 1634. Since he was still under age at that time, he had a guardian named Archihu, who was his uncle. Since Archihu had not inherited the kingship, he was evidently an uncle by marriage to a deceased sister of Wahanganoche mother of the royal blood. Wahanganoche was still probably a boy in his late teens by 1634 but would soon take over sole responsibility of the Patawomeck Tribe as an adult king. There were probably several others who would have been in line for the position of the Great King at the time he inherited it, but it is likely that most of the adults died from Dr. Pott’s poison punch.
Now, we will go back to the reason for all of this background information. It was to show why the compiler believes that Wahanganoche, King of Patawomeck, married a daughter of his cousin, Ka-Okee, child of Pocahontas. It was the same practice that his ancestors had carried on for generations before him. By marrying a daughter of Ka-Okee, he would have given his children the matrilineal royal bloodline that had passed down through Powhatan’s eldest sister and the Great King of Patawomeck. At that time, Wahanganoche was very limited at possibilities for a wife to carry on this ancestral tradition. There were probably not many women of the royal bloodline to chose from. Not only were the daughters of Ka-Okee prime candidates, they lived on adjoining property to him. Because Ka-Okee’s daughter would have been half English with very prestigious ancestry on her father side of the Pettis/Pettus family, it is no wonder why Chief Wahanganoche was able to marry so many of his daughters to English colonists of such high social status.
Patawomeck Connections to Our New Home of "Little Falls"
The Patawomeck Tribe has leased a tract of land that is part of the “Little Falls” Farm, formerly the home of the late Duff Green, but many probably do not know the historical significance of this property to our Tribe. It is not just a random location but was for many years the home of the ancestors of a large number of our Tribal members, Maj. William Newton and his wife, Elizabeth Kenyon, of Patawomeck descent. Elizabeth Kenyon was the daughter of Abraham Kenyon and Elizabeth Waddington, daughter of Francis Waddington, Jr. Francis Waddington, Jr., was the son of Francis Waddington and his wife, Christian (Pettus) Martin, formerly the wife of John Martin, and apparent daughter of Col. Thomas Pettus and the Patawomeck Indian, Ka-Okee, whose identity was passed down in our Tribe as the daughter of Pocahontas and her husband, Kocoum, younger brother of Chief Japasaw of the Patawomeck Tribe. William Newton was the half-brother of Vincent Cox, also an ancestor of many of our Tribal members, as they both had the same mother, Elizabeth Berryman. It is interesting to note that Stafford’s own member of the Virginia House of Delegates, Bob Thomas, is a direct descendant of Elizabeth Newton, the sister of Maj. William Newton and is, therefore, a relative of many of our Tribal members. William Newton raised his family of 9 children at “Little Falls”, namely John Newton, Elizabeth Newton (wife of Capt. Thomas Bronough), Sarah Newton (wife of Capt. Nathaniel Fox), Isaac Newton, William Newton, Benjamin Newton, Abraham Newton, Thomas Newton, and Margaret Newton (wife of Thomas Berry). He died in 1789, leaving a will in which he left instructions for the division of his property. One of the witnesses of Maj. Newton’s will was Benjamin Sullivan, who was the ancestor of many Tribal members, including your Historian. The plantation of “Little Falls” was originally comprised of 1,112 acres, which made him close to many of the White Oak families, such as the families of Porch, Jett, Curtis, Sullivan, etc. His son, Isaac Newton, inherited 300 acres that included the home place where the Duff Green mansion now stands. The current mansion stands on the exact location of the former home of Maj. William Newton, which was destroyed by fire in the 19th Century. We are fortunate that Isaac Newton applied for insurance on the original house in 1796 from the Mutual Assurance Society of Fredericksburg, from which the house details have survived. The original house was 46 feet long by 18 feet wide and was 1 ½ stories high. It was built of wood and covered with wood shingles. There was a kitchen building located 40 feet from the main house which was 16 feet by 18 feet, also made of wood. In 1796, the house and kitchen were valued at $1,650.00, which was a very large sum of money at that time. Isaac Newton died in 1838. His heirs were his children: Gerrard Newton, Sarah Newton (wife of Whitfield Brooke), John Newton, Thomas Newton, and Jane (wife of John McDermott). Isaac Newton’s children sold the land at “Little Falls” to Robert Robb in 1841. Mr. Robb sold the property again in 1849 to Dr. Hugh Morson, who was the nephew of Duff Green’s ancestor, Marion (Morson) Payne. Some of the transfers of the property at “Little Falls” were lost during the Civil War. Some of the records, however, were recorded again from original deeds in 1869, and it appears that Oliver Watson was in possession of the property by that time that he bought from Dr. Morson. Mr. Watson may have been the owner when the original frame house was lost by fire, as he did not die until 1882. He was also the owner of the “Chatham” mansion that he bought from Horace Lacy soon after he bought “Little Falls”. Oliver Watson’s son, Oliver Watson, Jr., was in possession of “Little Falls” after his father’s death, as well as being the owner of “Chatham”, which he bought from his sister, Emma Watson Jones, who had inherited it from their father. We are told that the current brick building was built at “Little Falls” in 1900-1901, when it was probably still owned by Oliver Watson, Jr. The building was there when a later owner, R. M. Brewer, was in possession of the property and when Duff Green’s father, Duff McDuff Green, bought the property in 1943.
Duff Green’s father, Duff McDuff Green, was the son of Allen Howison Green and Mary Lelia Montague. Duff’s great grandparents were Duff McDuff Green (1832-1885), who operated a cotton mill in Falmouth before and after the Civil War, and Mary Catherine Howison. Duff McDuff Green was the son of Capt. Duff Green (1792-1854) and Elizabeth Ann Payne. Your Historian has two folded letters in his personal collection from the 1840’s, before postage stamps existed and only postmarks were used, that were addressed to Duff Green, Falmouth, Virginia, which would have been Capt. Duff Green, above. Through his Payne family, Duff Green was related to most of the Stafford Paynes, from whom many of our Tribal members descend, including your Historian. His ancestor, Elizabeth Ann Payne was the daughter of Capt. William Payne (1755-1837) and his wife, Marion Andrew Morson (1765-1840). It is significant that Marion Morson was the sister of Alexander Morson (born 1761) of “Hollywood” Farm in Stafford. Alexander Morson allowed the Pamunkey Tribe to shelter at his “Hollywood” Farm during a very harsh winter in the early 1800’s. The Pamunkey Tribe was so grateful for his hospitality that they presented Mr. Morson with their most prized possession, the silver frontlet or crown of the former great Queen of Pamunkey, Cockacoeske. Alexander Morson’s will was written in 1817 and made the following bequest: “to my eldest son [who was the Hon. Arthur Alexander Morson] a silver plate or crown with the arms of Great Britain ingraved thereon sent by King Charles II to the Queen of Pamunkey”. The frontlet was presented to Queen Cockacoeske by King Charles II in observance of the 1677 Treaty of Middle Plantation between Great Britain and the remaining Powhatan Federation of Tribes headed by the Queen of Pamunkey. The frontlet was bought by Preservation Virginia in the late 19th Century for $800 (equivalent to about $20,000 today). In 2017, the historic frontlet was given back to the Pamunkey Tribe but will remain on display at the Nathalie P. and Alan M. Voorhees Archaearium at Historic Jamestowne on long-term loan. This holds special meaning to many of our Tribal members who descend from Dr. Richard Bryant and his wife, Seth Anderson, as Seth’s mother, Seth (Harrison) Anderson, appears to have been a granddaughter of Cockacoeske and her husband, Chief Totopotomoy. Since many of our White Oak family members used to hunt and fish with their Pamunkey friends even in our lifetime, the friendship with Pamunkey Tribal members may have been initiated by that winter in the early 1800’s in which the Pamunkey stayed at “Hollywood” Farm and became acquainted with our White Oak families. One of our Tribal relatives, Marion Wallace (Monteith) Purkins, is even buried at the “Hollywood” Farm cemetery. She was the granddaughter of Samuel Monteith (1785-1862).
Even the Roberson family had connections to “Little Falls”. The ancestor, Philip Roberson, was a close friend of Maj. William Newton and left his youngest son, George Roberson, under the guardianship of Maj. Newton in 1759, who raised George Roberson at his home. It seems ironic that the Robersons even had a connection to the Duff family of Duff Green. William Duff, who was the uncle of Robert Green, the ancestor of Duff Green, married about 1715 to Elizabeth Rush, the widow of William Rush. Elizabeth Duff’s will of 1746 was witnessed by two Robersons, Thomas and William, who were contemporaries of Philip Roberson and likely were his brothers. Elizabeth Duff’s former husband, William Rush, was the brother of Mary Rush, the wife of Philip Peyton, from whom descend the Rowe family and Charles Peyton, who married Elizabeth Roberson, granddaughter of Philip Roberson, who was likely his cousin. Your Historian believes that Philip Roberson and his apparent brothers were grandchildren of Philip Peyton and Mary Rush and were, therefore, grandnephews of Elizabeth Duff through her first husband, William Rush. That would explain how Philip Roberson got his given name of “Philip”, which was not a common name back then, and would explain why Thomas and William Roberson were witnesses to the will of Elizabeth Duff, whom they would have been fond of as their “Aunt Lizzie”.
Patawomeck Elkins Family
The first representative of the Elkins family in the Stafford County area was Ralph Elkins. He was born in England about 1633, and arrived in Virginia about 1657. He appeared in Lancaster County, Virginia, in 1665 in a suit involving Henry Hacker and soon moved to Stafford County. Since a Mary “Elking” gave a deposition in the Stafford County court in 1666, she was certainly the wife of Ralph, as there were no other in dividuals by that surname in the area at that time. Ralph Elkins’ wife was apparently the sister of Col. Peter Ashton, who was closely associated with Patawomeck Chief Wahanganoche and is believed to have married a daughter of the Chief, due to the Chief d eeding him land and giving him a gift that was recorded in the Virginia Council records. Ralph’s wife would also have been a sister of Maj. James Ashton, from whom Ralph purchased 150 acres of land in St. Paul’s Parish in 1681. Maj. James Ashton was the go dfather of Ralph’s son, Richard, and left Richard 100 acres of land in his will of 1687. The land left to Richard Elkins adjoined the land of John Grigsby, who had been transported to Virginia by Col. Peter Ashton and was traditionally a son in law of Chie f Wahanganoche. It is known that a sister of the Ashtons was living in the area about 1682 from a letter dated 18 January 1687 written by William Fitzhugh to Hon. Nicholas Spencer concerning money due from the estate of Maj. James Ashton to the widow of He nry Meese. It is amazing how many Patawomeck connections are shown among these people, as Col. Henry Meese’s wife, previous to his widow, was traditionally another daughter of Chief Wahanganoche, whose Christian name is believed to have been Mary. Henry Me ese was closely associated with the Chief and was even allowed to live on the Chief’s land that the Chief later deeded to him. Meese was also very close to the Ashton family and even gave a gift of a cow to Mary Ashton, the daughter of John and Grace Ashto n, believed to have been a godchild of Henry Meese who was named after his Indian wife. Ralph Elkins died in 1690, leaving a will. Even though his will is among the lost records, excerpts from it survive in later court records because of the land left to h is sons. Ralph had at least three sons: Richard, Nathaniel, and John Elkins.
It is interesting to note that Col. Peter Ashton named his estate in Virginia “Chatterton” after his ancestral home in Lincolnshire, England, which is most often spelled “Chadder ton”. From the Visitation of Lincolnshire and Burke’s Extinct Peerage, it appears that Ralph Elkins’ wife was a daughter of Walter Ashton, Vicar of Sutterton, in Lincolnshire, son of Walter Ashton of Spaulding, Lincolnshire, the owner of the English estate of “Chadderton”, and his wife, Etheldreda Partridge. The fact that there was a Lewis Ashton in the “Chadderton” family of Ashtons may substantiate that the compiler’s ancestor, Priscilla Elkins, wife of George Jones, was a daughter of Benjamin Elkins, a s on of Richard Elkins, Jr., son of Richard Elkins (b. 1669). Priscilla had a grandson named “Lewis Ashton Jones”.
Of the sons of Ralph Elkins, the only one known to have married into Patawomeck families was his son, Richard, who was born about 1669, accord ing to his age given as 51 in a deposition in regard to the estate of Robert Gallop in 1720. Richard Elkins married first, before 1695, to Mary Williams, daughter of Evan Williams and Christian Martin, daughter of John Martin and Christian Pettus, traditio nal daughter of Col. Thomas Pettus and Jane Ka-Okee, daughter of Pocahontas and her first husband, Kocoum, younger brother of Chief I Opassus (called Japasaw by the English, the father of Chief Wahanganoche). By his first wife, Richard Elkins is known to have had a son, James Elkins, who was given a deed of gift of livestock and other items by his grandmother, Christian Williams, which is of record in King George County in 1695. Other children by Richard’s wife, Mary Williams, appear to include a daughter, Diana Elkins (wife first of Charles Peyton and second of William Simpson) and a traditional daughter, Catherine Elkins (wife of William Redman, the stepson of Dr. Richard Bryant, the father of Richard Elkins’ second wife). Since the daughter, Diana Elkins , was raised by her stepmother, Elizabeth (Bryant) Elkins, it is easy to see how she became acquainted with her second husband, William Simpson, son of John Simpson, who married as his second wife, Sylent (Bryant) Jeffries, widow of Thomas Jeffries. The st epmothers of both Diana Elkins and her husband, William Simpson, were sisters. The second wife of Richard Elkins was Elizabeth Bryant, daughter of Dr. Richard Bryant and his wife, Ann, believed to have been the daughter of Col. Henry Meese by his Indian wi fe, Mary. Elizabeth Bryant was named in her father’s will of 1703, which also named her son, Richard Elkins, stated to have been under the age of 6, the son of Richard Elkins. Dr. Richard Bryant was known by the Patawomeck oral history to have been the son of Keziah Arroyah, a daughter of Chief Wahanganoche. Dr. Bryant’s siblings included, at least, brothers, Silent Bryant and Thomas Bryant, and a sister, Martha Bryant, wife first of Thomas Foley and second of William Burton, who lived on the 150 acres of l and when Ralph Elkins bought it from Maj. James Ashton in 1681. Since Richard Elkins, Sr., did not leave a will, there has been much speculation in regard to the names of his children who are not mentioned in court records. The only children of Richard Elk ins and Elizabeth Bryant who can be substantiated are his sons, Richard and Benjamin Elkins, who each married daughters of Robert Gallop (d. 1720), namely Mary Gallop and Phyllis (Gallop) Monteith, widow of Thomas Monteith (d. 1747). The Gallop daughters w ere of Patawomeck blood through their mother, Elinor Bryant, apparent daughter of Silent Bryant and his first wife, Lucy Doniphan. Elinor’s husband, Robert Gallop, co patented land with Bryant Foley, son of Thomas Foley and Martha Bryant, and according to the late pillar of the field of genealogy, George H. S. King, people who co patented land were almost always closely related by blood or marriage. Elinor (Bryant) Gallop and Bryant Foley would have been first cousins. Elinor was stated to have been a desce ndant of Chief Wahanganoche in early Monteith family records. Since Silent Bryant’s mother, Keziah Arroyah, was the Chief’s daughter, we are able to know that connection. The brothers, Richard and Benjamin Elkins, were both said to have had large families but no official record exists of the names of their children. A King George County deed in 1746 indicates that Richard and Mary had a son, Richard Elkins. In regard to Benjamin’s family, we are fortunate to have a partial list of his children from a public auction in 1986 called The Elkins Eagle, which names the following: Emanuel (m. Miss Aylette), Benjamin, Jr. (m.Elizabeth Earle), Lucy (m. William Barbee), Isaiah (m. Ann McClanahan), and another daughter (no record). The records of Culpeper County substant iate the names of the three sons, including the revelation that Emanuel Elkins had the middle name of Gallop. The daughter of “no record” was likely Priscilla, wife of George Jones (who was a witness on a Monteith family deed along with Isaiah Elkins, above). There are claims that there were other children born to Benjamin and Phyllis Elkins, including a son, Richard.
A Ralph Elkins, who married Frances Browne, before 1733, in King George County, daughter of Maxfield Browne, has often been assigned as a so n of Richard Elkins and Elizabeth Bryant, but more proof is needed. According to a 1733 deed in Prince William County, this Ralph and Frances Elkins had a son, Nathaniel Elkins. Ralph is believed to have migrated to Southwest Virginia and to have lived the re in areas such as Henry County. There are a large number of descendants of this Ralph who carry many of the same given names as the Stafford family. It would be wonderful to eventually make the proven connection to the Stafford family. With the great advancements in DNA research, this may soon become a reality.
The Patawomeck Family Of Monteith
Thomas Monteith was born in 1694 in Linlithgow, Scotland, to James Monteith and Magdalen Dalyell, Laird and Lady of “Binns”. His father was from an ancient Scottish family of titled nobility, descended from a multitude of kings. His mother was the heiress of the Baronetcy of “Binns”, being the only surviving child of Sir Thomas Dalyell, Baronet of “Binns”, son of the famous General Thomas Dalyell of Scottish military fame. Dame Magdalen Dalyell was descended from King James IV of Scotland and King Edward III of England. “The Binns” was the name of the Dalyell family’s home, a small, but magnificent, castle in Linlithgow. Thomas Monteith was the second son and next in the line of succession to his brother, Sir James Monteith-Dalyell, to the Baronetcy of Binns, if his line should fail for lack of descendants. At the age of 21 Thomas Monteith was already calling himself a “merchant of Glasgow”. He sailed to Virginia but only had a brief stay before returning to Scotland to aid his country in the Jacobite Rebellion. His family were staunch supporters of the Scottish royalty, as they were closely related. After the rebellion, he returned to Virginia and made his home in what is now Stafford County. According to the present Lady Dalyell of “The Binns”, whose husband is a direct descendant of Thomas Monteith’s older brother, James, Dame Magdalen Dalyell, Thomas’ mother, made the dangerous voyage, along with two of her daughters, to Virginia to visit her son in 1732. Magdalen and her daughters became ill with a virus while in Virginia and died. Shortly thereafter, Thomas Monteith married a local girl of Indian blood, Miss Phyllis Gallop, whose mother, Elinor, was a granddaughter of the last King of Patawomeck, Wahanganoche. During his lifetime, Thomas purchased thousands of acres of land in Virginia which eventually was inherited by his son, James. Thomas and Phyllis had four children: Magdalen, Elizabeth, John, and James. Magdalen Monteith, daughter of Thomas and Phyllis, married first to Anderson Doniphan and had a number of children, one of whom, Elizabeth, was the great grandmother of President Harry S. Truman. Magdalen married secondly to Jonathan Finnall and had yet another family of children. Elizabeth Monteith, daughter of Thomas and Phyllis, married first to Capt. Gerard Robinson, by whom she had two children, John Monteith Robinson, husband of Susan McClanahan, and Frances Wilton Robinson, wife of Elias Earle. Elizabeth (Monteith) Robinson married secondly to John Bithiway Lampton Grigsby, said to have been her cousin, but had no children by him. The compiler has often contemplated how the Grigsby family would have been related to the Monteiths. The only solution seems to be that it was through the Patawomeck Indian blood, as there is a tradition among some of the Grigsbys that they descend from a daughter of Chief Wahanganoche, King of Patawomeck, who married their immigrant ancestor, John Grigsby. This is a most logical deduction and solution to the question of the relationship between the Monteiths and the Grigsbys, as Immigrant John Grigsby, lived on land adjacent to that of Chief Wahanganoche and was even brought to Virginia by Col. Peter Ashton, who had also married a daughter of the Chief. If this was the case, John Grigsby’s daughter, Mary, was married, as her second husband, to her first cousin, John Meese, son of Col. Henry Meese by another daughter of Chief Wahanganoche, whose Christian name may have been Mary. Two of Immigrant John Grigsby’s sons were said to have married daughters of William Redman, the son of Col. Henry Meese’s daughter, Anne, by her first husband, traditionally a full-blooded Patawomeck Indian who was orphaned after the massacre of the Patawomecks by the English in 1666 and was raised by the Redman family, whose name he adopted. After her first marriage, Anne, married secondly to Dr. Richard Bryant, her first cousin, whose mother, Keziah Arroyah, was another daughter of Chief Wahanganoche. John Monteith, son of Thomas and Phyllis, traditionally moved to North Carolina. The Mantooth family claims that he had a Cherokee wife and a son, Thomas, who left numerous descendants, using the name of “Mantooth”.
James Monteith, son of Thomas and Phyllis, married his multiple cousin, Leah Owens, in 1763. Their marriage is recorded in the St. Paul’s Parish register. James’ mother, Phyllis, and Leah’s father, Samuel Owens, were half siblings, having the same mother, Elinor. After the death of her first husband, Robert Gallop, Elinor had married John Owens. Her son, Samuel Owens, married his cousin, Margaret Bryant, granddaughter of Dr. Richard Bryant and Anne Meese, by whom he had a large family. Margaret Bryant’s mother, Seth Anderson, was a legatee of the will of Maj. John West who died in Stafford County in 1717 and is believed to have been a direct descendant of Cockacoeske, Queen of the Pamunkey Indians, who was a close relative of Chief Wahanganoche. Cockacoeske had a son, John West, from an affair in about 1656 or 1657 with Col. John West, son of Governor John West. Maj. John West of Stafford appeared in the area right after he was last recorded in the Pamunkey area and married Sarah Harrison, sister of Burr Harrison, the Indian interpreter. Due to his close association with the area Indians and the fact that he left 500 acres “at Pamunkey” in his will to one of his sons, he is considered to have been identical to Queen Cockacoeske’s son. Seth Anderson was one of several women named “Seth” who were legatees of John West and are all believed to have been descendants of his sister, likely twin sister, who certainly married one of the brothers of Burr Harrison, from which family the female name of “Seth” (often written “Scythe or Sith”) was brought over from England. Seth Anderson’s own father was a son of David Anderson, who, by the right of his wife, Elizabeth, from her previous marriage to John Hallows, had held the indenture of Burr Harrison.
James and Leah Monteith had sons, Enos Monteith, Samuel Owens Monteith, and one who is believed to have died young, Bartholomew Gallop Monteith, likely a twin to their daughter, Keziah Gallop Monteith. The daughters of James and Leah who reached maturity were Ascenith Monteith, Aroye Monteith, Keziah Gallop Monteith, Fenton Monteith, Leah Owens Monteith, and a daughter whose given name is unknown who married Fielding Batteley.
Enos Monteith (born 1776), son of James and Leah, married Eleanor Warrick/Redman, daughter of John Redman and Catherine “Cassie” Warrick. She was likely a multiple cousin of Enos, if her grandfather, Andrew Redman, was a son of William Redman, above, and his traditional first wife, Catherine Elkins, as is suspected. Andrew Redman named his first son “William” and lived in the area of Loudoun County, Virginia, where several Grigsby grandchildren of William Redman, son of Anne Meese, settled. Enos and Eleanor had at least two sons and several daughters. One son of Enos, James Monteith, married Elizabeth ______ and left a number of children, including Richard E. Monteith, who married Georgiana Rowe, Susan B. Monteith, who married George W. Newton, and Ascenith Monteith, who married Dawson Richardson Sullivan. The other son of Enos and Eleanor has not been identified. He was in Enos’ household on the Stafford census and either died young or moved away. All of the daughters of Enos and Eleanor have also not been identified. They are known to have had Eleanor Monteith, wife of Gustavus B. Newton, Parthenia Monteith, wife of Fielding Hudson, Mischael Monteith, wife of William Alexander Otto Bowie, Catherine Monteith, wife of William Gaskins and of William Bradshaw (ancestor of many of the Stafford Bradshaws), and Lucy Montieth, wife of Piercy P. Bowie.
Samuel Owens Monteith (1785-1862), son of James and Leah, married Mildred Fines, daughter of James Fines and Rachel Curtis. Mildred Fines’ mother, Rachel, was a descendant of the Patawomeck Indian girl, Ontonah, who was orphaned by the massacre of the Patawomecks by the English in 1666 and was raised by the Curtis family. Samuel and Mildred had children: Thomas Monteith, husband of Ann “Nancy” Limerick/Limbrick, James Monteith, husband of Frances Cox, Lucinda Monteith (died young), Leah Monteith (unmarried), Mary Ann Monteith (unmarried), Wiliam Isaac Monteith, who married his cousin, Elizabeth Fines, Elizabeth Jane Monteith, wife of William Dobson, John Samuel Monteith, husband of Jane M. Rowe, and Nathaniel Owens Monteith, who was killed in the Civil War.
Ascenith Monteith, daughter of James and Leah, married James Rogers. The names of all of her children are not known. She is known to have been the mother of Ascenith Monteith Rogers, who married John Curtis, Lucy Ann Rogers, who married her cousin, George Owens, son of Reuben Owens, and possibly Mary, wife of James Roberson.
Aroye Monteith, daughter of James and Leah, was named after her Patawomeck ancestor. Her name was pronounced “Arroyah”, and she was known by her close family as “Rowie”. She married her cousin, John Finnall, son of Jonathan Finnall and Magdalen Monteith.
Keziah Gallop Monteith, daughter of James and Leah, was named after the Christian name of her Patawomeck Indian ancestor. She married her first cousin, James Owens, son of Reuben Owens and Sarah Kinney. It should be noted that Reuben Owens and his wife, Sarah Kinney, were also first cousins. Sarah’s mother, Anne Bryant, was a full sister of Margaret Bryant, who married Samuel Owens, the parents of Reuben Owens and Leah Owens, who married James Monteith. The intermarriage of close cousins kept the Patawomeck blood strong.
Fenton Monteith, daughter of James and Leah, married a Mr. Barbee, whose given name has not been determined. He was most likely her cousin, a son or other relative of Capt. John Barbee and Eleanor Duncan. Eleanor Duncan was a granddaughter of Elinor, wife of Robert Gallop. Since Fenton Monteith was a double descendant of Eleanor Duncan’s grandmother, Elinor, she and her husband, Mr. Barbee, could have been related in several ways.
Leah Owens Monteith, daughter of James and Leah, married twice. Her first husband was her first cousin, Thomas Owens, son of Reuben Owens and Sarah Kinney. Her second husband was Charnock Cox, Jr., son of Charnock Cox, Sr., and his first wife, who was likely a sister of Reuben and Leah Owens and was, therefore, another cousin. The given names of two of the brothers of Charnock Cox, Jr., namely Samuel and Enoch Cox, indicate a marriage of their father into the Owens family, as those were important names in the Owens family and were not previously known in the Cox family.
The name of the daughter of James and Leah who married Fielding Battaley has not been identified. It is also not known if she left any children. The Battaley family was closely associated and intermarried with the Bryant family, who were closely related to the Monteiths.
The immigrant ancestor of the Monteith family, Thomas Monteith, died in 1747. It was said that he asked his slaves to carry him out to his garden when he was too ill to walk, and he pointed out the spot where he wanted to be buried. The old Monteith Cemetery started by Thomas Monteith is now overgrown in the woods near the White Oak Landfill. An old red sandstone foot stone may be all that is left to mark the grave of Thomas Monteith. His widow, Phyllis, remarried to her cousin of Patawomeck blood, Benjamin Elkins, and had another large family by him.
Through Arroyah, the daughter of Chief Wahanganoche, the Patawomeck blood was well established in Stafford County.
The Patawomeck Finnall Family
Anyone who has roots in the Finnall family in Stafford before 1900 is certainly a descendant of the Patawomeck Tribe. The name is spelled in various ways in the public records as Finnall, Finnell, Finney, etc. All of the family in Stafford were descended from Jonathan Finnall and Magdalen Monteith. Magdalen, born about 1735, was the daughter of Thomas Monteith and Phyllis Gallop, whose mother, Elinor, was a granddaughter of the Patawomeck Indian, Keziah Arroyah, daughter of Chief Wahanganoche. Magdalen Monteith married first to her cousin, Anderson Doniphan, and had five children, including a daughter, Elizabeth, who married Richard Shipp, and was the great grandmother of President Harry Truman. After the death of her first husband, Magdalen married secondly, about 1763, to Jonathan Finnall, who lived until 1792. We do not have a complete record of all of the Finnall children but do know the names of several of them as follows: (1) Frances Monteith Finnall (abt. 1763-1815), who married James Hansbrough (by whom she had Joseph Sumner, Lucy Doniphan, Eleanor Sumner, Peter, James, Thomas DeEll, and John Calhoun Hansbrough); (2) John “Jack” Finnall, who married his first cousin, Aroye Monteith, daughter of James Monteith and Leah Owens, who were also cousins and both of Patawomeck blood (by whom he had John, Elizabeth, Edward, and Leah Finnall); (3) Robert Monteith Finnall (abt. 1775-1847), who married first to Margaret Newton, daughter of John Newton and Mary Thomas (by whom he had at least a son, Walter H. Finnall) and secondly to Mary Rollow (by whom he had Thomas, John, Francis, Jane, and Mary Ann McD[ermott?] Finnall); (4) Eleanor S. Finnall, who married Joseph T. Newton, son of John Newton and Mary Thomas (by whom she had a son, James Finnall Newton, who married his cousin, Eleanor Sumner Hansbrough); (5) Jonathan Finnall, Jr. (1782-1852), who married Elizabeth Claiborne Fox, daughter of Capt. Nathaniel Fox and Sarah Newton, daughter of Maj. William Newton of “Little Falls”, and had one son, Nathaniel Claiborne Finnall, who died without issue; and probably (6) Sarah (Finnall?), who married Samuel Cox (by whom she had a number of children, including a son, Austin Cox [who, along with his wife and children, made his home with Jonathan Finnall, Jr., above] and a daughter, Matilda Cox, who was the first wife of Gustavus B. Newton, later husband of Eleanor Monteith, daughter of Enos Monteith). Note that Gustavus B. Newton was the son of Benjamin Newton, who was a brother of Joseph T. Newton and Margaret Newton, above, which helps to support by association that Sarah, wife of Samuel Cox, was indeed a Finnall. Anyone who descends from this Finnall family might want to visit the illustrious home of Frances Monteith (Finnall) Hansbrough, above, called “Salubria” in Stevensburg, Culpeper County. “Salubria” is a beautiful example of 18th Century architecture. Among the graves in the Hansbrough family cemetery there is the tombstone of Thomas DeEll Hansbrough, who was named after his great great great grandfather in Scotland, Sir Thomas Dalyell, Baronet of Binns. The name of Dalyell is pronounced like the letters “D. L.” Sir Thomas Dalyell was the father of Lady Magdalen Dalyell, wife of James Monteith of Auldcathie, who were the parents of Thomas Monteith, the immigrant to Virginia, father of Magdalen Monteith, who married Jonathan Finnall of Stafford County.
The Patawomeck Newton Family
Of all of the families in Stafford County of Patawomeck blood, the Newton family is probably the most recognized. Some people have even referred to the Tribe as the Newton Indians. The first Newton known to have taken a wife of Patawomeck blood was Maj. William Newton (b. abt 1715; d. 1789) of “Little Falls” plantation in Stafford County. He was the son of William Newton and Elizabeth Berryman. His mother had previously been married to Charnock Cox, by whom she had a number of children whose descendants figure prominently among the Patawomeck descendants of today. Maj. William Newton is believed to have had two wives. The official records only show that his wife was Elizabeth Kenyon, daughter of Abraham Kenyon and Elizabeth Waddington. Some of the descendants of his son, John Newton, have claimed that Maj. William Newton also married a woman named Margaret Monroe. Your Tribal Historian, Bill Deyo, has adhered to this claim until a few years ago, when he came to believe that Margaret Monroe was the second wife of Maj. Newton and not the actual mother, but a beloved stepmother, of his children.
The Newtons of White Oak have long claimed a descent from Pocahontas, daughter of Chief Powhatan, and it was through Maj. William Newton’s wife, Elizabeth Kenyon, that this lineage flowed. Her mother, Elizabeth Waddington, was the daughter of Francis Waddington, Jr., and Margaret Thomasin. Francis Waddington, Jr., was the son of Francis Waddington, Sr., and his wife, Christian (Pettus) Martin, the widow of John Martin. Christian’s mother was traditionally the Patawomeck Indian, Ka-Okee, daughter of Pocahontas by her first husband, Kocoum, the younger brother of Chief Japasaw. Maj. William Newton and his wife, Elizabeth, had nine known children: John Newton, William Newton, Benjamin Newton, Abraham Newton, Thomas Willoughby Newton, Isaac Newton, Elizabeth Newton (married Capt. Thomas Bronaugh), Margaret Newton (married Thomas Berry), and Sarah Newton (married Capt. Nathaniel Fox). Most present day Tribal members of Newton blood descend from the oldest son, John Newton. Some, however, descend from the son, Benjamin Newton, who was likely the father of Frances Newton, wife of Francis Sullivan, of Spotsylvania County, and of Lucy, wife of William Sullivan, of Orange County, whose land adjoined that of Francis Sullivan at the county line. Also, the son, Thomas Willoughby Newton, according to the chancery records of Fredericksburg, had two natural born sons, one of whom was Thomas K. Newton of Stafford County. Thomas K. Newton was the consort of Mary Frances Dillon and had children, George T. Newton (who married Lucy F. Sullivan), Sarah Newton, and Peter Newton. George T. Newton was a carpenter. A small handmade trunk that he constructed with interlocking parts came into the Roberson family through the marriage of George T. Newton’s daughter, Sarah Dillon Newton, to Walter D. Roberson, great grandfather of Bill Deyo, who now proudly owns the trunk.
John Newton (1744-1811), oldest son of Maj. William Newton, married Mary Thomas and had ten children, per the family register: William Newton (married Jane Barr Stewart), John Claiborne Newton (married Judith Pollard), Benjamin Newton (1769-1821; married Anne “Nancy” Butler of Patawomeck descent), Betsy Newton (married Anthony Strother), Joseph Thomas Newton (married Eleanor S. Finnall of Patawomeck descent), Margaret Newton (married Robert Monteith Finnall of Patawomeck descent), Martha Newton (married George Wise, who was a pall bearer for the body of President George Washington in 1799 and was a descendant of Pocahontas and John Rolfe), Augustine Newton (married Ann Sophia Gadsby, aunt of John Gadsby Chapman, the famous artist who painted the “Baptism of Pocahontas” in the Rotunda of the Capitol, Washington, D.C.), Mary Thomas Newton (married Dr. William Walton Harper), and Gerrard Newton (who died young).
Benjamin Newton (1769-1821), son of John and Mary (Thomas) Newton, married Ann “Nancy” Butler, daughter of William Butler and Rosannah Courtney, daughter of James Courtney and Christian Humphrey. Nancy Butler brought much more Patawomeck blood into the family, as her maternal grandmother, like Benjamin Newton, also appears to have been a descendant of Pocahontas through Christian Pettus, daughter of Ka-Okee. Nancy Butler’s maternal grandfather, James Courtney, was the son of John Courtney and his wife, a daughter of Bryant Foley, a grandson of the Indian princess, Keziah Arroyah, daughter of Chief Wahanganoche. Like the Newtons, the Courtney family has long claimthe descent from Pocahontas.
Most of the current Newton families of Stafford County descend from the children of Benjamin and Nancy Newton. We do not have a complete list of the children of Benjamin and Nancy Newton but have been able to glean the identities of eight children so far: Martha “Patsy” T. Newton (marrieDr. Thornton Jones), Margaret Newton, Massina Newton (moved to King George County and married Clarissa Lee), William Newton (moved to Ohio), John Newton (married Mildred Curtis), Abraham Benjamin Newton (married Catherine Snellings), Mary Newton (married Robert Harper), Gustavus B. Newton (married first to Matilda Cox and secondly to Eleanor Monteith), and probably others. The sons of Benjamin and Nancy (Butler) Newton left a multitude of descendants who have ensured that the name of Newton will be carried on.
The Patawomeck Sullivan Family
The traditional ancestor of the Sullivan family of Stafford was one Darby Sullivan (sometimes written “Swillivan” or “Suilivan”) who came from Ireland to Virginia in the 1600s. The story was passed down that he lived near the docks as a boy and, on one occasion, stole a hot gingerbread that a lady had placed on her window sill to cool. He ran aboard a ship at the docks to hide while he ate his treat but was not able to get off of the ship before it set sail. The ship brought him to Westmoreland County in Virginia. Darby had a known wife, Elizabeth, the daughter of William and Margaret Snowdall. He left a will in 1699 in Westmoreland, leaving all to his wife, Elizabeth. A later chancery suit involving the estate of Elizabeth Sullivan’s father, William Snowdall, showed that Darby had no surviving children by her. Since there was a younger Darby Sullivan in the same area, it seems apparent that the elder Darby must have had a wife previous to Elizabeth by whom he had at least one son, Darby. The first wife may well have been a local Indian woman. The late Fredericksburg genealogist, George H. S. King, always believed that the younger Darby was a son of the immigrant and obtained the same story of the “Gingerbread Darby” from various descendants.
We will refer to the younger Darby Sullivan as “Darby II” for clarification. He was apprenticed to Samuel Rust of Westmoreland County in 1716. By 1721, he was in Brunswick Parish, King George County, which later became Stafford County, due to a boundary change in the late 1770s. Darby Sullivan II married Elizabeth, who was probably a Miss Burgess, as one of their sons was given the name of “Burgess”. Darby died there by 1729 when his widow, Elizabeth, was the administratrix of his estate. He left sons, Burgess Sullivan, Darby Sullivan (III), and John Sullivan, and probably a number of others. Darby and John were residents of White Oak in what is now Stafford County. Burgess married Ann Carver and resided close by in King George County. Darby Sullivan III married Ann Fugate, daughter of Josias Fugate and Mary Martin, of Patawomeck Indian blood. John Sullivan married a woman named “Lettice” (a nickname for Letitia). The maiden name of Lettice was probably Porch, as that was a favorite name of that White Oak family. The Porch family also connected to the Martin family of Patawomeck blood. John and Lettice Sullivan probably had a number of children, but two of their sons were Gabriel Sullivan, who left many descendants in Northern Stafford, and William Sullivan, who settled in Orange County.
Darby Sullivan III was born about 1722, as he was exempted from paying personal property taxes in 1787, which was an indication that he had reached the age of 65. His wife, Ann Fugate, had Patawomeck Indian blood through both parents by way of the Martin family and the Patawomeck Indian girl, Ka-Okee, the traditional daughter of Pocahontas and Kocoum, the brother of Chief Japasaw, who was raised by the Patawomeck Tribe after Pocahontas’ abduction. Darby and Ann (Fugate) Sullivan had a very large family of children from whom most of the Sullivans of present day Stafford descend. Their children included: Martin Sullivan, Darby Sullivan, Daniel Sullivan (who married Mary Jett), Benjamin Sullivan (who married Susannah Kitchen), William Sullivan, Sarah Sullivan, Shady Sullivan, Francis Sullivan (who married Frances Newton), and probably Jonas and Thomas Sullivan and others. The first four sons are all known to have left descendants in White Oak. The Sullivan wives, Mary Jett and Susannah Kitchen, were both daughters of Porch women, who also are believed to descend from the Martin family of Patawomeck blood. This close association with the Porch family gives us a good indication that Lettice, the wife of John Sullivan (brother of Darby III) was also of that family, as her given name implies. The compiler, Bill Deyo, descends from both John Sullivan and his brother, Darby III. Mrs. Frances (Newton) Sullivan was also a cousin of Martin descent. It was because of the close intermarriage of their cousins of Patawomeck blood that the Sullivans retained prominent physical features of their Patawomeck ancestors. Some of the early photographs of the Sullivans of White Oak leave no doubt of their Indian heritage.
Additional information on this family can be found in The Sullivan Family of Stafford County, Virginia by William L. Deyo. Information on this and other books can be found on the Patawomeck website.
The Wahanganoche Family
One of our most important Patawomeck ancestors was Chief Wahanganoche, King of Patawomeck. He was the last known chief before the 1666 massacre of our tribe by the English. We owe the survival of our tribe to his shrewd insight into the future and to his tactful allowance of the marriages of his daughters to influential Englishmen. The 1666 massacre left our tribe almost in a state of annihilation, in which the English attempted to kill all of the men and to place the women and children into servitude. Only a few escaped. The English did not bother the Patawomeck wives of English settlers and had no idea that the children and descendants of those wives would join together to save the tribe and preserve the Patawomeck heritage!
Wahanganoche was the son of I-Oppasus, commonly called “Japasaw” by the English, the lesser chief of Patawomeck. His mother was a daughter of Pamunkey Chief, Powhatan, Head of the Powhatan Federation of tribes, and was a full sister of the Indian Princess Pocahontas. It was not through his father, but through his mother, that Wahanganoche inherited his title of King of Patawomeck, as she was of the direct line of the royal matrilineal succession. His aunt, Pocahontas, was first married to the Patawomeck warrior, Kocoum, the younger brother of his father, Japasaw. Pocahontas was married to Kocoum in 1610, per the Colonial Secretary of the Virginia Colony, William Strachey. She had at least one daughter, Ka-Okee, before the English captured her at the Patawomeck village in 1613. Ka-Okee was left behind to be raised by Japasaw’s family. She married a Mr. Pettus, an Englishman, and raised a number of children on land adjoining her cousin, Wahanganoche. It is strongly believed that Wahanganoche married one of the daughters of Ka-Okee, as that would have been the only way for him to carry on the tradition of his ancestors in taking a wife of the royal matrilineal succession to ensure that his own children would have the chance to one day lead the tribe. Since the Great King of Patawomeck (whose name has not been preserved), the older brother of Japasaw, had severed relations with the Pamunkey Tribe when he failed to support them in their massacre of the English, the only representatives of the matrilineal succession available to Wahanganoche were the daughters of his older cousin, Ka-Okee, who happened to live on the adjoining property in Passapatanzy.
Wahanganoche and his family were baptized into the Christian faith in 1642 by Father Andrew White. Twenty years later, Wahanganoche was falsely charged with treason and murder by Col. Giles Brent and others and was tried before the Colonial Council. He was acquitted of all charges and, in compensation for his unjust imprisonment, injuries and affronts, was paid handsomely, by the order of the court, by Col. Giles Brent, Col. Gerrard Fowke, Capt. George Mason, and Mr. John Lord. He was given his freedom to return home in 1662 but, according to a 1664 letter written by Col. John Catlett, the Chief lost his life during his journey home. From the content of the letter, it appears obvious that Wahanganoche was murdered. Ironically, the Chief had been given a silver badge by King Charles II to grant him safe passage across the English lands. That badge was unearthed on the Catlett property 200 years later and is currently on exhibit at the Virginia Historical Society. We do not know if the family of Chief Wahanganoche heard about his death or was still waiting for him to return home when the English tried to annihilate the Patawomeck Tribe in 1666.
We do not know the number of children that Chief Wahanganoche had and only know some of their names and spouses by tradition and some supporting evidence. He had at least two sons who escaped across the Potomac River to Maryland during the massacre of 1666. According to the Maryland Archives, they were both captured by the Susquehannock Tribe in Maryland and were turned over to the colonial Maryland government. Their fate is unknown. It is possible that they survived, however, and were the Indians in Maryland of the “Potomax” Tribe that are referenced in the 1897 obituary of Matilda Delilah DeSheilds (born 1784 and died in 1897 at the age of 113), daughter of Montgomery Delilah and Nancy Potomax, daughter of Chief Richard Henry Potomax, whose tribe had once occupied the territory across the river below Alexandria.
Chief Wahanganoche’s daughters were traditionally Keziah Arroyah (the wife of a Mr. Bryant), a daughter whose Christian name appears to have been Mary (wife of Col. Henry Meese), a daughter called Grace by some (wife of Col. Peter Ashton), and a daughter, name unknown (wife of John Grigsby). The descendants of these daughters intermarried with each other and also intermarried with the descendants of orphans of the 1666 massacre, two of whom are said to have been Elizabeth Ontonah Curtis and William Redman. This continuous intermarriage among cousins of Indian blood helped to keep the Indian blood and Indian features strong to the present day.
The daughter of Wahanganoche called Keziah Arroyah appears to have been one of the older children. She married a Mr. Bryant, who is believed to have been the Richard Bryant who was transported to Virginia during the period of about 1644 to 1650 by Christopher Boore, who patented land next to that of Capt. Giles Brent in 1654 in what later became Stafford County. It is not known how many children Keziah had, but it seems clear from their associations that four of them were Dr. Richard Bryant (born 1651, who married his first cousin, Anne Meese), Silent Bryant (whose first wife is believed to have been Lucy Doniphan), Thomas Bryant (who appears to have married his Indian housekeeper, Eleanor), and Martha Bryant (who married Thomas Foley). Dr. Richard Bryant married Anne (Meese) Redman, daughter of Col. Henry Meese and his Patawomeck wife. Anne was traditionally the young widow of William Redman, an orphan of the 1666 massacre who was raised by the Redman family. They had children: Nathaniel Bryant, Dr. Richard Bryant (who married Seth Anderson, an apparent descendant of Cockacoeske, Queen of Pamunkey), Elizabeth Bryant (second wife of Richard Elkins), Ann Bryant (wife of William Proctor), Silent Bryant (wife of Thomas Jeffries), and Susannah Bryant. Dr. Richard Bryant (II) and Seth left a multitude of descendants in the Stafford/King George County area. Their daughter, Margaret Bryant, married her cousin, Samuel Owens, son of John Owens and Elinor Bryant (of the Wahanganoche bloodline). Leah Owens, a daughter of Samuel and Margaret, married her cousin, James Monteith, son of Thomas Monteith and Phyllis Gallop (the half-sister of Leah’s father, Samuel Owens). Two of the daughters of James and Leah Monteith (namely Keziah and Leah) married sons of their maternal uncle, Reuben Owens, whose wife was also a daughter of a sister of Margaret Bryant, above! George Owens, another son of Reuben, married his cousin, Lucy Rogers, whose mother, Ascenith, was another one of the daughters of James and Leah Monteith. Arroyah, daughter of James and Leah Monteith, married her first cousin, John Finnall, son of Jonathan Finnall and Magdalen Monteith. Enos Monteith, son of James and Leah, married Eleanor Redman, believed to have been a great granddaughter of William Redman and Catherine Elkins, both of Patawomeck blood. Samuel Monteith, son of James and Leah, married Mildred Fines, a descendant of the Patawomeck orphan, Elizabeth Ontonah Curtis. From all of these close intermarriages of Patawomeck descendants, it is no wonder how the Indian blood was kept strong.
Elizabeth Bryant, daughter of Dr. Richard Bryant and Anne Meese, married Richard Elkins and left many descendants by him. Richard Elkins had first married Mary Williams, daughter of Evan Williams and Christian Martin, a granddaughter of Ka-Okee of the Pocahontas line. Among others, Richard and Mary were said to have had a daughter, Catherine Elkins, who married William Redman, stepson of Dr. Richard Bryant and son of Anne (Meese) Redman by her first husband. The Grigsby family has long held that John and James Grigsby, sons of the immigrant, John Grigsby, each married a daughter of William Redman and his Elkins wife. In support of this, it is known that the given name of “Redman” has passed down for many generations among the Grigsby descendants. William Redman had a second wife, Anne (Philpin) Jones, the widow of George Jones. Her daughter, Sarah Jones, was the wife of Richard Curtis, of the bloodline of the Patawomeck orphan, Elizabeth Ontonah. The Curtis family was proud of their ancestor, Elizabeth Ontonah, and carried on her name as a given name almost until the 20th Century. They were well aware of their Patawomeck descent and often intermarried with the descendants of both Wahanganoche and Ka-Okee.
Of the other known three children of Keziah Arroyah, namely Silent Bryant, Thomas Bryant, and Martha (Bryant) Foley, only Martha remained in the area of her birth. Silent and Thomas moved farther down the Northern Neck into Essex and Richmond Counties. Silent’s traditional first wife, Lucy Doniphan, whose name has been carried on as a given name among some of her descendants, is only believed to have left one child, a daughter, Elinor, who remained in the area of her birth while her father moved away with his second wife. Elinor married first to Robert Gallop, who died in 1720, leaving her with four young daughters to raise. One of those daughters was Phyllis Gallop, the wife of Thomas Monteith and ancestor of all of the Monteith family. Phyllis married secondly to her cousin, Benjamin Elkins, and had another large family by him. Elinor married secondly to John Owens and had at least two sons, Samuel Owens and Nathaniel Owens. Thomas Bryant, son of Keziah Arroyah, was accused in the 1690s of fathering an illegitimate child by his housekeeper, Eleanor, who had no last name and could have been another one of the Patawomeck orphans who survived the 1666 massacre. Since the will of Thomas Bryant in Richmond County named his wife, Eleanor, it appears that he married his Indian housekeeper. Martha Bryant, daughter of Keziah Arroyah, married Thomas Foley and left a number of children by him. Some of the Foley descendants intermarried with the Grigsby family, who were likely their cousins of the blood of Wahanganoche. Some branches of the Foley family still carry the tradition of their descent from Pocahontas.
The first wife of Col. Henry Meese has long been considered a daughter of Wahanganoche. We do not know her Indian name, but it seems likely that her Christian name was Mary. Henry Meese made a deed of gift to only one of the daughters of John Ashton who was named Mary. This was a good indication that Mary Ashton was the goddaughter of Henry and the namesake of his wife. Chief Wahanganoche allowed Henry Meese to live on his land and later in 1662 deeded the land to him. Henry and his Indian wife had a number of children whom he listed in his will. We only know what happened to two of them, Anne and John Meese. Anne, as was stated previously, married first to the Indian, William Redman, and secondly to Dr. Richard Bryant, her first cousin of Indian blood. John Meese married first to a woman named Rebecca, who is believed to have been Rebecca Pettus, daughter of Robert Pettus and granddaughter of Ka-Okee. Rebecca carried the Christian name of her famous great grandmother, Pocahontas. Your compiler, Bill Deyo, believes that John and Rebecca were the ancestors of the Mays family of Stafford, a variation of the name of Meese. The Mays family also carried the tradition of a direct descent from Pocahontas! John Meese married secondly to Mary Grigsby, the daughter of the immigrant, John Grigsby. If John Grigsby’s wife was also a daughter of Wahanganoche, John Meese and Mary Grigsby would have been first cousins. To further support that tradition, Anne Meese’s son by Dr. Richard Bryant, namely Nathaniel Bryant, died unmarried but left a will in which he gave most of his estate to Mary (Grigsby) Meese, the wife of John Meese. It would have been highly unlikely that Nathaniel Bryant would have left his estate to anyone other than a close relative. If Mary’s mother was Nathaniel’s double grandaunt, by being a daughter of Wahanganoche and sister to the mothers of both of his parents, and Mary married Nathaniel’s own maternal uncle, John Meese, the matter is clearly understood.
Col. Peter Ashton was certainly married to another one of Wahanganoche’s daughters, as the minutes of the Virginia Council record a deed of gift to him from the Chief. Some of the records of the Society of Colonial Dames list the wife of Peter Ashton as Grace Meese. Henry Meese had no known daughter by that name, but it may indicate that Peter Ashton’s Indian wife had the Christian name of Grace. Peter and his wife had no known children.
As discussed previously, there is a tradition among some of the Grigsby descendants that the immigrant, John Grigsby, married a daughter of Wahanganoche. There are many factors that support this. John Grigsby was transported to Virginia by Col. Peter Ashton, whose wife was a daughter of Wahanganoche. John Grigsby lived on adjoining land to Chief Wahanganoche. John Grigsby’s daughter, Mary, married John Meese, a grandson of Wahanganoche. John Grigsby’s sons, John and James, married daughters of William Redman, a grandson of Wahanganoche. The Redman sisters would also have been descendants of Pocahontas through Catherine Elkins, Redman’s traditional first wife. Also, the will of Nathaniel Bryant clearly indicates a strong relationship to Mary, daughter of John Grigsby. Many of the Grigsby descendants have been referred to as having Indian blood. If this is true, we know where it came from!
We are fortunate that the close intermarriage between Patawomeck cousins over the centuries has given the descendants a continuing identity as Patawomeck people. It has also been a catalyst in the preservation of Patawomeck heritage and traditions. We are proud to be Patawomeck!